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Generative AI and the Changing Nature of Work

Artificial intelligence and automation have become buzzwords in the modern workplace. However, the precise impact of emerging technologies like generative AI on jobs and work remains unclear. While some fear widespread job losses, others argue new forms of work will emerge.

Today we will examine how generative AI specifically will change, rather than replace, many roles. By understanding its capabilities and limitations, organizations can harness this technology to complement human skills and creativity.

Understanding Generative AI

To understand generative AI's impacts, it is first vital to grasp its technical capabilities and current limitations. Generative systems have achieved impressive feats like writing news articles, composing music, and generating novel images from text prompts. However, they remain narrow in their abilities. For example, while AI can now generate basic articles on specific topics, it lacks human-level understanding, reasoning, and the capacity for flexible thought (Smith, 2022).

Generative systems are also vulnerable to producing misleading, nonsensical, toxic, or factually incorrect outputs when pushed beyond their intended uses or data training (Jobin et al., 2019). Further, while AI can automate routine information work, it still struggles with tasks requiring complex communication, problem-solving, judgment, empathy and ethics that come naturally to humans (Frey & Osborne, 2017). Understanding these technical boundaries is important for determining how generative AI will truly impact work.

Changes to Specific Jobs and Industries

Rather than replacing whole occupations, research indicates generative AI's effects will vary significantly across different roles and industries. Some jobs heavily involving routine physical labor or information processing are most at risk of partial or full automation. For example, in manufacturing, AI and robotics have already replaced many assembly line jobs (Muro et al., 2019). In customer service, AI chatbots now handle basic inquiries, freeing human agents for more complex interactions.

However, many roles involving complex communication, management, teaching, health and social skills will still require humans even as certain routine subtasks are automated (Nedelkoska & Quintini, 2018). For instance, in journalism, generative AI is augmenting work by automatically generating basic articles like earnings reports and local weather summaries (Jopson, 2021). This allows journalists to focus on investigative reporting, editorial decision-making and building relationships—core skills less easily automated.

Industries currently seeing the most change include media, IT, finance and professional services where data-driven work lends itself well to augmentation and increasing efficiencies through AI (Chui et al., 2018). By contrast, roles situated in fields like education, health, arts, trades and manual labor are less immediately transformable given skill requirements. Overall, AI heralds changes rather than job losses for most as humans and technology learn to collaborate in new ways.

Harnessing Generative AI for Change, Not Disruption

Rather than fearing technological disruption, forward-looking organizations are proactively reshaping work to capitalize on generative AI's benefits. Some practical steps include:

  • Identifying routine tasks for automation. Conduct workflow analyses to pinpoint duplicative data entry, basic reporting, administrative and compliance work AI can reasonably assume.

  • Redesigning roles around "humane" skills. Rebalance jobs toward interpersonal skills, complex problem-solving, judgment, interpretation, ethics and creativity —areas of enduring human strength (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014).

  • Upskilling workers for AI collaboration. Provide training in digital literacy, data analysis, programming basics and machine teaching to empower staff as partners in technological progress.

  • Adapting work environments. Experiment with more flexible, virtual and shared workspaces that accommodate new online/offline collaboration models between humans and AI systems.

  • Evaluating ethics proactively. Establish governance, oversight processes and " Constitutional AI" best practices to ensure generative systems are built and used responsibly (Cath et al., 2018).

  • Diversifying talent pools. Attract new skills in fields like design thinking, mechanical engineering and data science critical for shaping innovative human-AI partnerships.

By approaching generative AI as an opportunity rather than threat through proactive change management, organizations can establish new competitive advantages through strengthened human capabilities. The ultimate impact depends greatly on how companies and policymakers successfully steer technological progress.

Case Study: Media Industry Transformation

The news media sector exemplifies both challenges and opportunities arising from generative AI. As algorithms replace routine content generation, many publishers now use AI to supplement human journalists. The Associated Press (AP) generates around 3,000 stories daily on financial data and earnings reports through its Automated Insights business (Jopson, 2021). This frees reporters for more substantive work, while expanding coverage.

AP's examples illustrate how generative AI can introduce efficiencies to sustain media businesses undergoing digital disruption. Many smaller media outlets rely on AP's AI-generated content due to shrinking newsrooms (DeJesus, 2021). However, maximizing AI's benefits requires careful planning. Some newspapers initially cut staff without readying replacements for displaced roles (Grieco, 2020). This risks skills gaps that undermine technological potential.

Leading organizations are instead thoughtfully revamping workflows. The Los Angeles Times empowered its innovation team to explore emerging technologies, advise newsrooms on change, and upskill journalists transitioning duties (McCarthy, 2021). Meanwhile Washington Post invests in new verticals around product and technology to facilitate generative AI integration (Sydell, 2021). Such strategic, collaborative approaches helped media companies leverage AI's scale while preserving quality, verified journalism as a cornerstone.

Overall, news industry experiences demonstrate generative AI's propensity to augment rather than wholly displace existing jobs— provided organizations make considered investments in talent, training and work redesign alongside technology adoption. With prudent change management, emerging tools can strengthen media's vital role supplying verified information to the public.


While generative AI heralds significant changes to work, its impacts will be evolutionary rather than revolutionary for most occupations. By automating routine tasks, this emerging class of AI stands to augment and increase the productivity of human skills like complex problem-solving, communication and creativity. However, organizational leadership and policy responses will determine whether technological progress strengthens or disrupts existing job structures.

The examples discussed illustrate generative AI's capacity to both introduce new efficiencies and risks of skills gaps if change is not managed thoughtfully. By proactively identifying automatable routines, reskilling workers, establishing responsible best practices and welcoming new hybrid job roles, companies can successfully harness AI to complement rather than compete with human capabilities. Overall, with prudent change management at the intersection of technology, work design and talent development, generative AI promises more changes than losses for work as we know it today. Its implications are ones of new opportunities for human potential when guided responsibly.



Jonathan H. Westover, PhD is Chief Academic & Learning Officer (HCI Academy); Chair/Professor, Organizational Leadership (UVU); OD Consultant (Human Capital Innovations). Read Jonathan Westover's executive profile here.



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