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Facing a Post-Industrial Economy where Skills and Workers are Scarce

The world of work is undergoing rapid and profound changes fueled by technological advancements, globalization, demographic shifts and evolving worker expectations. As a result, HR executives today face a very different landscape than just a decade ago. One of the biggest challenges is operating in a post-industrial economy where finding and retaining skilled talent has become increasingly difficult.

Today we will examine the key factors contributing to skills shortages and worker scarcity as well as the strategies HR leaders need to adopt in order to thrive in this new environment.

The Post-Industrial Economy

The post-industrial or knowledge economy refers to an economy where economic growth is driven by intellectual capital rather than physical inputs or natural resources. It is characterized by a decline in manual labor jobs and a rise in jobs requiring advanced technical skills and knowledge. This is a result of automation, computerization and the outsourcing of routine tasks and production to lower-cost regions. At the same time, jobs involving non-routine cognitive and interpersonal skills are becoming more valuable and cannot be easily replicated by machines.

In this economy, a country’s competitive advantage lies in innovation, ideas and the creation of intellectual property rather than mass production of physical goods. Workers who possess high levels of human capital in the form of education, expertise, creativity and technological literacy are the most sought-after. Routine manual and clerical roles are disappearing while non-routine analytical and social roles demanding advanced skills are growing rapidly. This shift underlies the scarcity of skilled talent that HR executives are grappling with.

Factors Contributing to Skills Shortages

There are several interconnected factors that have led to the current skills scarcity in the post-industrial economy:

  • Accelerating pace of technological change - The shelf-life of skills is getting shorter as digital transformation and emerging technologies rapidly disrupt industries and render existing capabilities obsolete. Organizations are struggling to keep pace with the speed of change.

  • Retiring baby boomers - The massive wave of impending baby boomer retirements will result in a drain of scarce technical skills and institutional knowledge. As older workers leave, they take years of expertise with them.

  • Education-job skills mismatch - Despite rising enrollment in higher education, graduates often lack the specific hard and soft skills employers need. Educational institutions are not evolving curricula fast enough to keep up with changing workplace demands.

  • Geographic imbalances - Certain regions like Silicon Valley face dire talent shortages and skills gaps even as other areas grapple with high unemployment. This points to a geographic mismatch between talent supply and organizational demand.

  • Increased competition for critical skills - With talent now powering competitiveness, organizations across sectors are competing fiercely for the same scarce digital, analytical and human skills. This amplifies the talent crunch for any given firm.

  • Negative perceptions of certain jobs – Many roles with current high demand such as personal care aides, childcare workers and truck drivers are perceived as low-status and unattractive by potential workers. This limits the available talent supply.

  • Inadequate pipeline development - Companies have under-invested in robust talent supply chain management including succession planning, leadership development and upskilling. This has depleted critical talent pipelines.

HR Strategies for the Post-Industrial Economy

To tackle the challenges of the post-industrial landscape, HR executives need to significantly rethink and expand their talent management strategies. Some of the imperatives are:

  • Partnering with learning and development teams to continuously upskill and reskill workers. With rapid skills obsolescence, ongoing capability building must become a higher priority.

  • Taking the lead in identifying pivotal roles, assessing future skill demands and building a skills inventory for the organization. HR needs to become more data-driven in workforce planning.

  • Collaborating with business leaders to develop flexible staffing models that tap into alternative talent sources like freelancers, gig workers and retirees on an on-demand basis.

  • Expanding talent attraction channels and messaging to target both active and passive candidates in skill-scarce domains globally.

  • Piloting initiatives like returnships, alumni networks and boomerang programs to bring former employees with relevant experience back into the talent pool.

  • Using technology enablers like online platforms, intelligent bots and AI to amplify recruiting and make hiring processes more responsive and candidate-friendly.

  • Partnering with learning institutions to design customized curriculum and apprenticeships so students are equipped with skills employers actually need.

  • Advocating for training incentives and continuing education policies that encourage skills development and make talent more career resilient.

  • Promoting a culture of learning so employees continually build capabilities and adaptability needed to thrive in the knowledge economy.

  • Developing programs to upskill and retain mature workers to avert the brain drain from retirements.

  • Influencing business leaders to adopt human-centric automation strategies that enrich jobs through technology rather than replace human capabilities.

  • Ensuring talent practices promote diversity and inclusion so organizations tap into the full spectrum of skills in the workforce.


The transition to a post-industrial economy has dramatically changed talent dynamics for HR executives. With skills shortages and worker scarcity now the norm, fresh strategies are urgently required to access and optimize critical capabilities. As this essay outlines, HR needs to become more future-focused, data-driven, collaborative, inventive and candidate-centric. With strong learning partnerships, workforce analytics and an expanded talent supply chain, HR can equip their organizations to excel in the new world of work. But executing this transformation requires investment, creativity and visionary leadership.


Jonathan H. Westover, PhD is Chief Academic & Learning Officer (HCI Academy); Chair/Professor, Organizational Leadership (UVU); OD Consultant (Human Capital Innovations). Read Jonathan Westover's executive profile here.



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